Wednesday, 11 April 2018



1) How do geological phenomena help us to know about the history of humankind?

Ans: Geological phenomena helps us a great deal to know about the history of humankind. We come to understand the Earth’s present, past and future, what sort of life existed at that time, how time has changed now. What led to this change. It is said that the world’s geological history is trapped in Antarctica.

2) What are the indications for the future of humankind?

Ans: It is impossible to go anywhere near the South Pole and not be affected by it. It is easy to be blase about polar icecaps melting while sitting in the comfort zone of our respective latitude and longitudes. When mankind can visibly see glaciers retreating and ice shelves collapsing, one begin to realise that the threat of global warming is very real. These are the ‘indications for the future of humankind.’


1) ‘The world’s geological history is trapped in Antarctica.’ How is the study of this region useful to us? 

Ans: The study of Antarctica is useful to us because here we can understand the past, the present and the future of our globe. Six hundred and fifty million years ago, a supercontinent called Gondwana existed around the present day Antarctica. The study of Antarctica can help us in understanding what happened during the five hundred million years of Gondwana’s existence. It can tell us a lot about the evolution and extinction. For five hundred million years Gondwana thrived.However, around the time when dinosaurs were wiped out and the age of the mammals got underway, the super-continent was broken. The landmass was forced to separate into countries.

2) What are Geoff Green’s reasons for including high school students in the Students on Ice expedition?

Ans: Geoffs reasons for including high school students in the ‘Students on Ice Expedition’ has a great purpose. The purpose is to let these young people realise the great importance so remains retatively ‘pristine’ in this respect. Antarctica has never sustained a human ‘population’ and in this respect. How the climate change is affecting it, is something to be seen to believe. The danger that the melting of the ice-caps will cause to the life on earth ‘ can be realised only when one goes there.
Yet, the more important purpose is to take them there closer to Antarctica because Antarctica holds half million-year-old carbon records trapped in its layers. If we want to study, the earth's past, present and future, Antarctica is the place to go.

3).‘Take care of the small things and the big things will take care of themselves.’ What is the relevance of this statement in the context of the'Antarctic environment? 

Ans: The statement, ‘Take care of the small things and the big things will take care of themselves’, is very important in context of the Antarctic . environment. Antarctica has simple ecosystem and lacks biodiversity. Here we find on the sea-surface microsc0pic phytoplankton. Phytoplankton are the grasses of the sea that nourish and sustain the entire southern ocean’s food chain. These are single-celled plants which use the sun’s energy to assimilate carbon and synthesise organic compounds through photosynthesis. Now the scientists warn that a further depletion in the ozones layer will affect the activities of phytoplankton. If it happens, the lives of all marine animals and birds of this region will be endangered. Needless to say, that it will affect the global carbon cycle as well. , Thus if we take care of such a small thing as phytoplankton, the big things will fall into place.

4) Why is Antarctica the place to go to, to understand the earth’s present, past and future? 

Ans: Antarctica is the place to go to, to understand the earth’s present, past and future because half a million-year-old carbon records are trapped in , the layers of its ice. The study of this ice may reveal the evolution of life , and how mammals and ultimately human beings happen to be here.

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